The kits are used for quantitative analysis of glycinin and β-conglycinin in soybean and its deep processing products (soybean meal, fermented soybean meal, extruded soybean, soy protein isolate, soy protein concentrate, etc.).
The soybean plays a vital role in human and animal nutrition. The nutritional qualities of soybean ensure tremendous and growing demand on soy crop worldwide. Glycinin and β-conglycinin are soybean seed storage protein. They accumulate in the developing seed, and their main function is to act as a storage reserve for nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur. Seed storage proteins are rapidly mobilized during seed germination and serve as the major source of reduced nitrogen for the growing seedlings.
Despite the soybean nutritional value, it is included in the "Big 8" list of food allergens. Soybean contains several components (among them are glycinin and beta-conglycinin) that may cause serious diseases. The proteins can trigger severe allergic reactions in people intolerant to soy.
The contribution of glycinin and β-conglycinin to severe allergic reaction in people intolerant to soy food has been proven in the study of binding of immunoglobulin IgE to glycinin and beta-conglycinin in the serum of these patients. IgE-binding to glycinin was found in 90% of patients and IgE-binding to beta-conglycinin was shown in 15% of patients.
Food products containing soybeans have to be labeled in order to protect the allergic consumers. Nevertheless, soybeans can still inadvertently be present in food products. The development of analytical methods for the detection of traces of allergens is important for the protection of allergic consumers.
Scientists have been working on creating screening tools for the identification of stable soybean derived markers which were still identifiable even after food processing. The peptides (401)Val-Arg(410) from the G1 glycinin (Gly m 6) and the (518)Gln-Arg(528) from the α' chain of the β-conglycinin (Gly m 5) proved to be the most stable. These peptides hold potential to be used as targets for the development of new analytical methods for the detection of soybean protein traces in processed foods.
Researches are also trying to create soybean experimental lines that are devoid of a subset of seed storage proteins and therefore will not be allergenic for humans and animals.
There are, however, health benefits of beta-conglycinin - it positively affects lipid metabolism by reducing serum and liver cholesterol, lowering plasma VLDL, preventing cirrhosis, and inhibiting lipogenesis.
Interest in the positive and negative health effects of glycinin and beta-conglycinin proteins has intensified research in the field and demand for high quality ELISA assays for detection of the allergens in the soy beans and soy food samples.