We are proud to bring to the scientific community Recombinant Antibody for Polysialic Acid.
Polysialic acid (PSA), a bioactive carbohydrate, was first found in Escherichia coli [Barry GT et al., Nature, 1957] and has since been rported in several types of tumors [Suzuki M. et al., Glycobiology, 2005]. Many different tumors (e.g., neuroblastoma, glioma, melanoma) manifest neuroendocrine features, such as the production of peptide hormones, marker enzymes and neurosecretory granules [Broers, JL et al., Cancer Res, 1987].
In vertebrates, PSA can attach to the neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM), which belong to a family of cell surface sialoglycoproteins involved in cellular adhesion. Various NCAM isoforms are generated by alternative splicing of RNA from a single copy. The invasive behavior of these tumors could be attributed to the presence of a-(2,8)-Polysialic Acid (PSA)-rich NCAM forms. Polysialylation of NCAM dramatically reduces the NCAM adhesive capacity and could therefore provoke invasive growth of tumor cells [Madico G et al., Immunol, 2007].
It has been reported that patients with extensive rhabdomyosarcoma showed higher levels of PSA-NCAM than patients who had undergone chemotherapy [Gluer S et al., Pediatric Res, 1998]. It has been suggested that the PSA, present on the tumor cells, inhibits adhesion and up-regulates cell motility, resulting in deviation from the primary tumor site and metastases. PSA-positive tumors also display higher diffusion ability [Suzuki et al., Glycobiology, 2005]. Therefore, PSA closely correlates with tumor invasion and plays an important role in tumor recurrence.
PSA is important in brain function and neuronal development . PSA-NCAM are abundant in the embryonic brain, yet only found in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb in adults. In brain tissue, PSA-NCAM has a broad function, serving to mediate synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, neurotrophic factor signaling, and inflammatory signaling throughout the brain. Moreover, the expression of PSA-NCAM is reduced by depression and conversely enhanced by antidepressant treatment, particularly within the hippocampus [Wainwright SR et al., Neuropsychopharmacology, 2016].
Application of Polysialic Acid in drug delivery systems
Modification of biomolecules are gaining more and more importance in drug delivery research. Drug modification with PSA can enhance the drug’s uptake by tumor cells and its retention in brain tissue. Because PSA is non-immunogenic and biodegradable, PSA modification can reduce the immunogenicity of proteins or peptides and increase the circulation time of the modified drug in the blood.
We offer highest quality Polysialic Acid Recombinant Antibodies that can be used for various applications: ELISA, IHC, Western blotting. See images below.
Figure 1. Extracellular immunofluorescent staning of rat kidney tissue section with 3 µg/µL of recombinant anti-Polysialic Acid antibody. Cat. BA-Ab00240-23, clone 735 (Absolute Antibody product).
Figure 2. Extracellular immunofluorescent staning of rat spinal cord tissue section with 3 µg/µL of recombinant anti-Polysialic Acid antibody. Cat. BA-Ab00240-23, clone 735 (Absolute Antibody product).
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